Craft can be described as economic activities in which products or services are created on demand. The opposite of handicraft is industry, where mass production takes place. The special thing about craft is that it has always prevailed and developed over the centuries in any political, social and technological developments.
Beginning in ancient Greece, the manual professions were not exactly respected. Xenophon, an ancient Greek politician and general, wrote as a reason for this that they worked all day in the house, thus receiving little of the sun, becoming pale and thus more susceptible to disease. Moreover, precisely because one spent so much time on one's profession, one also had little time to care for one's social environment and defend one's city or country. The status of a craftsman was similar to that of a slave.
In the Middle Ages, however, the whole thing turned bit by bit into the opposite, because from that time on crafts became more and more important and respected. The craftsmen specialized more and more in different subjects. Some processed food, others made various tools and structures from wood, but home production was still the main focus. Such working techniques as metal casting and creative works such as sculpture and painting, however, were more likely to be found in monasteries at that time. Later, the blacksmiths and potters established themselves, who needed some equipment to practice their profession.
In the early modern period, various regulations gradually emerged, some of which still exist today in a similar form, such as the apprenticeship fee, the apprenticeship period and the master craftsman's examination. In this period, the crafts professions have also become more and more specialized. The different working techniques and tools have become more widespread and the technologies have developed further. Goldsmiths, book printers and wigmakers, for example, already emerged at that time.
The craftsmen played an extremely important role also in the period after the Second World War. The craftsmen were the ones who creatively provided for the existence of the population with simple means. Especially in the 18th and 19th centuries, completely new crafts emerged, partly because of the modernization of the state and society, such as electricians and mechatronics engineers.
Today, craftsmen are once again in high demand and definitely highly regarded compared to earlier times. It is also often the case that craftsmen earn more than academics. The practitioners are currently simply much more in demand than theoreticians, just like electronics technicians, roofers and also craftsmen for the construction industry.
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